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China- Revolution of 1949

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Leaders of the Party's

Leader of the Kuomintang (KMT): Chiang Kai-shek (October 10, 1928 - December 15, 1931
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Leader of the Communist Party of China: Mao Zedong (June 19, 1945 - September 9, 1976

China After Japan's defeat (1945 - 1950)

The confrontation between the Kuomintang: the nationalist group in China, and the Communist Party of China have been in Conflict since the 1920’s. However they had formed a short alliance against the

Japanese during WWII. When the war ended the fighting resumed around 1946. The revolution of 1949 was the final stage to the confrontation and the end to the civil war in China. The nationalists had more control of China before World War II then the Communists; however the nationalists lacked moral support from most of the people in China. Moreover, they had support from other countries such as the United States. As well the Kuomintang had been corrupted from inside. The communist party on the other hand lead by chairman Mao Zedong had control of the Red Army which were a ‘guerrilla tactic like’ army made up of peasants and civilians. After World War II the tables had turned and favored the Communists with their forces growing to 1.2 million troops. Moreover the Soviets turned over confiscated Japanese armaments over to the communists, the communists were now armed and ready to fight. As well after world war II the nationalist government was suffering with mass internal corruption, this leads China into economic chaos, with hyperinflation. Causing the Kuomintang to become extremely unpopular and making the communists more promising. One of the main reasons the nationalists were still in power was because of the United States backing the nationalist government. However the nationalists future by 1948 was unpromising, while the communists gained more power. Once they were able to capture Manchuria and other major National cities the communists became even more well equipped with tanks and other munitions.

How did Taiwan and China Separate

After a series of victories by the CMC and the People’s Liberation Army (Red Army). The KMT nationalists were eventually pushed back to the point where they had nowhere to go. As such they fled to the island of Taiwan. After which the CMC and Mao consolidated his power and declared the People's Republic of China on October 1st 1949. Taiwan then set up the Republic of China in Taiwan, which is unrecognized by People’s Republic of China, who still maintain the fact that Taiwan is under China’s sovereignty.

What types of governments did Taiwan and China have

The People’s Republic of China has a Marxist - Leninist single party state government in place.

Taiwan (Republic of China) has a presidential republic government in place.

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America’s Involvement

After World War II America wanted to influence China to become a close ally that they could influence. However after WWII ended the fighting between the nationalists and communists was soon to begin again. Therefore America of course afraid of communism sided with the nationalists, however they too had just finished a long world war were not fully ready to commit troops to fight a war with the communists. Instead they tried to help Chian Kai-shek and the KMT to build up their forces while America tries to bridge relations between Mao and the communists, and the KMT. Instead it backfired, for Mao believed that America would help the KMT, so while they were having peace talks Mao too was continuing to build up his forces. This is one of the main factors that the nationalists were defeated because when the fighting did resume, America did not send in any troops to aid the nationalists. However what America did do is provide Chiang Kai-shek and the KMT with millions of dollars as well as munitions and equipment. Which they would then regret in the future, due to the fact that most of the supplies they gave to the nationalists, Mao had captured and eventually gave to the north Vietnamese soldiers, who then used them against the South Vietnam and America

USSR’s Involvement

After Japan had surrendered, the USSR had troops in Manchuria, and was told to pull out and such they were so slowly. Because during the war and after it the communists had gained the upper hand and were now more popular. The USSR then saw this and acted upon it by giving all captured Japanese munitions, and any surplus equipment and munitions USSR had to the CPC. Moreover as they were pulling out of Manchuria they were doing so extremely slowly, or so they said to the KMT, meanwhile they were in fact having the CPC moving in while they were doing this. So that the CPC will have control of the area, thus increasing their influence.

While the Republic of Chine was concentrating on the Second Sino-Japanese War, the USSR supported Uyghur nationalists in their uprise in Xinjiang

they set up Second East Turkestan Republic against Kuomintang. Until Chinese Communist Party defeated Kuomintang in 1949, USSR terminated to support Second East Turkestan Republic.

The Soviets tried to spread anti-Chinese propaganda among minorities in Xinjiang, but this backfired when Uyghur mobs attacked White Russians and called for them to leave Xinjiang.

With the creation of the People's Republic of China, the political authority in the two countries became centred in two communist parties, both espousing revolutionary, Marxist-Leninist ideology: the Communist Party of China and the Communist Party of the Soviet Union.

Why was America Involved

The reason America was involved was because they feared the spread of communism due to the domino theory. Which was that if one country became communist, and its neighboring one does as well then it would spread like a domino effect. As well they saw the opportunities that China could give them, if America were able to effectively influence them. They wanted to become close allies with China for awhile, which is why when they saw the communists ganing power, they didn’t want to risk losing China.

Why was the USSR Involved

Because the USSR fought along side with the Kwantung Army in the end of the Second World War, the Soviet Union got the right to use the China Far East Railway, the South Manchuria Railway, Lushun and Dalian.

This was important to the Soviet Union because the Port Arthur and Dalian were ice-free ports for the Soviet Navy, and the China Far East Railway and the South Manchuria Railway were communications lines which connected Siberia to the Port Arthur and Dalian. As Mao Zedong required the Soviet Union to return these interests to China, and this was a crucial part of the Sino-Soviet Treaty of Friendship. Joseph Stalin initially refused this treaty, but finally agreed with this treaty. With this treaty, China became a sovereign state, but the interests of the Soviet Union suffered a heavy loss.

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The People's Liberation Army

The People's Liberation Army, or Red Army was truly a force to be reckoned with. Its original guerilla tactic fighting changed after World War II. It gained respect during World War II as a very well trained force. When the fighting between the KMT and the CPC resumed the PLA became more organized and well disciplined. While most of the top soldiers for the KMT army had either been killed or severely injured during World War II, as well with the mass corruption within the KMT government the soldiers for the army were undiciplined and no match for the PLA. This ultimately was one of the main reasons the CPC gained a sudden advantage over the KMT after World War II.